Progress indicators inform users about the status of ongoing processes, such as a login progress, uploading files, or refreshing content. They communicate an app’s state and indicate available actions, such as whether users can navigate away from the current screen.
Login screen with linear progress indicator (left), uploading files (middle), content refresh with circular progress indicator (right)
- Use progress indicators if the wait time takes longer than one second.
- Use only one indicator type for each activity in an app, for example, if a circular indicator represents a refresh action on a screen, a linear indicator should not be used for the same action elsewhere in the app.
- Keep labels short – we recommend one line of text.
- For determinate indicators, include a progress value, for example, 60%, 30/100, at the end of the label.
- It is mandatory to use labels for error and success states.
- Don’t transition from a linear to a circular progress indicator or vice versa.
- Don’t use labels when a loading process takes less than 10 seconds, or when the height or the width is too constrained.
- Try to avoid using progress indicators with two lines of text. Wrapping is not recommended and is only available for compact window sizes.
- Don’t display a progress value for the error/fail and success states.
C. Label (Optional)
Anatomy of determinate and indeterminate linear progress indicators in active state
Anatomy of determinate and indeterminate circular progress indicators in active state
A. Indicator (Hidden by Track)
C. Validation Message
Anatomy of linear progress indicators in error/fail (left) and success state (right)
Behavior and Interaction
Text Wrapping (Only for Mobile)
Labels are optional and should only be used when the process takes 10 seconds or more. They should be concise and, ideally, not exceed one line of text.
If the length of the text exceeds the available space, the text wraps into the next line and the progress indicator will keep its position on the top. Wrapping is not recommended and is only available for mobile window sizes ranging from 0-599 dp. Labels can’t exceed two lines of text.
Text wrapping examples of linear (left) and circular (right) progress indicators
If an error occurs or a process fails, the loading animation stops. The indicator turns red and the entire track fills with the error color.
Error/fail state behavior
The success state appears after the successful completion of a process or request. The indicator turns red and the entire track fills with the success color.
Depending on the use case, you can choose one of the following options for the success indicator
- Persisting until the user triggers another action, such as closing or changing screens
- Disappearing after 3 seconds
Success state behavior
Linear Progress Indicator
Linear progress indicators display progress by animating an indicator along the length of a fixed, visible track. The behavior of the indicator is dependent on whether the progress of a process is known.
Determinate linear progress indicators display how long a process will take. They should be used when the process can be completed within a specified amount of time. They fill from 0% to 100% and never decrease in value. For example, downloading/uploading a file of known size.
Linear progress indicator (determinate)
Indeterminate linear progress indicators express an indefinite waiting time. They should be used when the process completion can’t be determined, or when it is not necessary to indicate how long an activity will take. It conveys that a user’s action, request, or data is being processed.
Linear progress indicator (indeterminate)
C. Indeterminate to Determinate
The indicator can switch from an indeterminate state to a determinate state. It should be used when an indeterminate process reaches a point where its duration can be determined, and the loading animation can be stopped.
Linear progress indicator (indeterminate to determinate)
D. With Label
- Labels are optional to communicate the status and progress. If there is nothing to communicate, having no label is valid.
- Only include labels to give extra context or to provide useful information, for example, what information the progress bar is processing. Avoid using terms such as “loading” that don’t add any value.
- Use sentence-style capitalization for message labels.
- We recommend including a progress value, for example, 60%, 30/100, at the end of the label for determinate indicators to show how much of the process is already completed, the current progress, and how much is remaining.
- The display of the progress value is under application control. The application should be able to turn the progress value off.
- Keep labels short – we recommend one line of text.
Linear progress indicator (with label)
Circular progress indicators display progress by animating an indicator along an invisible circular track in a clockwise direction. They can be applied directly to a surface, such as a button or a card.
Indeterminate circular progress indicators grow and shrink in size as they move along an invisible track. They should be used when the process completion can’t be determined, or when it is not necessary to indicate how long an activity will take.
The determinate circular indicator moves from 0 to 360 degrees along an invisible circular track and fills it with color. Use this variation when the process completion can be determined.
Indeterminate (A) and determinate (B) circular indicators
The following states are available for indeterminate and determinate progress indicators. Keep in mind that the error/fail and success states should not display a progress value.
The error/fail state indicates that an action or request could not be completed successfully. Labels are mandatory and should always inform the user what kind of error/fail happened and how this issue can be resolved. The message should be as concise as possible. Follow the guideline for indicators with a label.
Linear progress bar with one-line error message (left) and two-line error message (right)
The success state indicates the successful completion of a process or request. Labels are mandatory for the success message and should be concise. A short information about the completed process or the executed action is sufficient, for example, “Download completed”. One line of text is recommended.